Annotation Glossary and References

Annotation Glossary

BLamD Basal laminar deposit Diffusely distributed extracellular deposits of basement membrane proteins between the RPE and its basal lamina [Sarks, 1976] [Sarks, 1988] [Marshall, 1999] Basal lamina
BLinD Basal linear deposit Diffuse extracellular deposits of lipid-rich drusen-like material, between the RPE basement membrane and the inner collagenous layer of BrM [Sarks, 1988] [Curcio, 1999] [Curcio, 2009] Sub-RPE space
Blood Blood Hemorrhage secondary to neovascularization [Grossniklaus, 2006] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Bmound Basal mound Focal extracellular deposits of drusen-like material (lipoprotein-derived debris), clumped within BLamD [Sarks, 1988] [Sarks, 2007] BlamD
Break Break Gap in BrM, due to neovascularization [Sarks, 1997] BrM inner, BrM outer
Calcification Calcification Fine deposition of particulate calcium phosphate on individual EL fibrils in BrM earliest forms, advanced forms can fill ICL and OCL [Verhoeff, 1926] [Hogan, 1971] [Davis, 1981] [Spraul, 1997] BrM inner, BrM outer
Cells Cells In OPL Henle, Sub-Retinal Space, Sub-RPE Space: non RPE (lacking melanosomes and lipofuscin) In ChC: Presumed macrophages clearing choriocapillaries under BrM arches [Gupta, 2003] [Xu, 2008] [Killingsworth, 1990] OPL Henle, Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE Space, ChC
Cells pigmented Cells pigmented Subducted RPE with spindle-shaped melanosomes and lipofuscin [Curcio, 1998] Sub-RPE space
Cells-Chor Cells of choroidal origin Hedgehog-shaped or flattened individual cells, with or without pigment granules and lipid droplets; now considered subducted RPE [Curcio, 1998] Sub-RPE space
Cells-Ret Cellular processes of retinal origin Processes from retina, presumably Müller cells or microglia diving under deposits, often continuous with Henle fibers [Kuntz, 1996] [Gupta, 2003] Sub-RPE space
Convolutions Convolutions Coiled tips of photoreceptor outer segments [Marshall, 1979] OS
CorpAmyl Corpora amylacea Corpora amylacea [Loeffler, 1993] NFL
Cys Cystic space Cystic space with or without cellular lining [Cohen, 2010] NFL, GCL, IPL, INL, OPL Henle, ONL rods, ONL cones
Detached Detached Photoreceptors mechanically separated from RPE; RPE mechanically separated from BrM; separation is presumed artifactual Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Druse Druse Focal extracellular deposits of heterogeneous debris, dominated by neutral lipids, between the RPE basement membrane and the inner collagenous layer of BrM [Bressler, 2006] Sub-RPE space
Early Early form of BLamD Fine palisades of extracellular material resembling basal membranes, between the RPE and its basement membrane; type VI collagen component also visible in OCL of BrM; can have tracks or aggregations of drusenoid-material (basal mounds); bright blue in toluidine blue stain; abundance associated with AMD progression [Sarks, 1976] [Curcio, 1999] BlamD
EctopicPRN Ectopic photoreceptor nucleus OPL Henle: Inwardly displaced rod nuclei. IS myoid: outwardly displaced cone nuclei [Gartner, 1981] OPL Henle, IS myoid
Entub-nonRPE Entubulated non-RPE non-RPE-derived cells in a tubulation lumen OPL Henle
Entub-RPE Entubulated RPE RPE-derived cells in a tubulation lumen OPL Henle
ERM Epi-retinal membrane Fibrocellular, non-vascular tissue on the internal surface of the neurosensory retina [Yanoff, 2002] Assigned to NFL for convenience due to its sporadic nature
Fibrin Fibrinous exudate Exudate that is cloudy and thin, with strands of fibrin [Lafaut, 2000] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Fluid Fluid Fluid from permeable vessels Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Focalloss Focal loss Areas of ONL with markedly fewer nuclei, often associated with drusen or atrophic RPE ONL rods, ONL cones
Folds Choroidal folds Contractions of choroidal surface due to scar formation [Keane, 2012] [Menard, 1992] [Brown, 2009] Choroid
Gaps/Missing Gaps due to missing cells Areas of bacillary layer (IS, OS) with gaps in array of photoreceptors [Curcio, 1996] [Johnson, 2003] IS myoid, IS ellipsoid, OS
Ghost Choriocapillary ghost Ghost capillaries lack viable endothelium and have a remaining arch of overlying BrM; distinguishable from peripapillary region where capillaries are missing without the arch [Mullins, 2011] [McLeod, 1994] Chc
Infiltrate Cellular infiltrate Extravasated leukocytes [Green, 1977] [Penfold, 2001] Choroid
Late Late form BLamD Amorphous dense BLamD, closer to RPE than early BlamD, scalloped with concavity outwards, as though laid down in waves [Sarks, 1988] [Sarks, 2007] BlamD
LipGlob Lipid globules Extravascular osmophilic inclusions, 60 µm diameter on average; well-circumscribed, multilobular, dispersing, and disintegrating [Friedman, 1966] Choroid
LipidPools Lipid pools Esterified cholesterol-rich lakes, 4-6 µm, irregular polygons within BLinD and soft drusen [Li, 2007] Sub-RPE space
M/Lgran Melanin/lipofuscin granules Isolated dark rod-shaped melanin, green-bronze irregular shaped lipofuscin granules, identical to those found within RPE [Feeney, 1978] OPL Henle, ONL rods, ONL cones, Sub-RPE space
Melanotic Cells Melanotic Cells Cells with large black spherical melanosomes, individually or in multiple layers, in eyes with neovascular scars. Sub-Retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Missing Missing Not visible, in eyes were some OS are visible OS
Neovasc Neovascularization Fibrovascular tissue, with or without patent lumens of choriocapillaries [Grossniklaus, 2005] [Grossniklaus, 2006] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Normal Normal Referring to photoreceptors: no local diminution or distortion in ISmy, ISel, or OS, relative to remainder of section [Curcio, 1996] [Johnson, 2003] IS myoid, IS ellipsoid, OS
Occlusion Occluded vessel Approximation of internal lumen, with internal structure of vessel walls still apparent, in a configuration not explainable by glancing sections through the vessel wall Choroid
Oildrop Oil droplets Homogenous, round, moderately stained with toluidine blue Sub-retinal space
Particulate Particulate matter Unknown composition, among Henle fibers OPL Henle
Peripap Peripapillary type Basal laminar deposit in the peripapillary region lacks lipoprotein-derived debris [Curcio, 2000] BlamD
Persistent Persistent A layer of basal laminar deposit, often wavy and moth-eaten, that persists adjacent to or detached from Bruch’s membrane in the absence of RPE (RPE4) or in the presence of disintegrated RPE (RPE7) in eyes with advanced AMD. [Sarks, 1988] [Ooto, 2014] BlamD
Pre-BlinD Pre basal linear deposit Layer of 80 nm-diameter lipoprotein particles, 3-4 deep [Ruberti, 2002] [Curcio, 2001] Sub-RPE space
Pyknucl Pyknotic nuclei Condensation of nuclear material into a solid, darkly staining mass in a dying cell thickness, especially shrinking of cells through degeneration [Cheville, 2009] ONL rods, ONL cones
Reflection Reflection Reflection of OPL Henle onto RPE or BrM, at atrophy edge [Fleckenstein, 2008] [Mones, 2012] ONL rods, ONL cones
RPE0  RPE Uniform Epithelioid; Uniform morphology, pigmentation [Guidry, 2002] [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE1  RPE Non-Uniform Epithelioid; Slightly non-uniform morphology, pigmentation [Guidry, 2002] [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE2  RPE Very Non-Uniform Epithelioid; Very non-uniform morphology, pigmentation; still a monolayer [Curcio, 2013] RPE
RPE2A  RPE Sloughing Epithelioid RPE with migration into sub-retinal space (heaped, sloughed into sub-retinal space) [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE2B  RPE Shedding Epithelioid RPE with basal migration of RPE cells or RPE fragments into basal deposits [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE2L  RPE Bilaminar Two layers of epithelioid RPE [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE2V RPE Vacuolated Epithelioid RPE with a single large vacuole, sometimes with contents, delimited apically by extremely effaced cytoplasm RPE
RPE3  RPE Intraretinal Epithelioid RPE with anterior migration of RPE cells or fragments through external limiting membrane [Guidry, 2002] [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE4  RPE Atrophy with BLamD Atrophy: Loss of pigmented cells with persisting basal laminar deposits [Guidry, 2002] [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE5  RPE Atrophy without BLamD Atrophy: Loss of both pigmented cells and basal laminar deposit [Vogt, 2011] RPE
RPE6  RPE Entombed Non-epithelioid; Entombed by neovascular membranes and scars; Intermingled with other cells and fluid, in the same layer RPE
RPE7  RPE Disintegrated Non-epithelioid, disintegrated layer; individual cells with or without nuclei in atrophic area, not necessarily adherent to persistent BLamD RPE
RPEfrag RPE fragment Cellular fragment recognizable as RPE due to melanin and/or lipofuscin, with or without visible nucleus; OPL Henle includes entubulated RPE [Guidry, 2002] [Vogt, 2011] OPL Henle, ONL rods, ONL cones, IS myoid
Scar Fibrovascular scar Dense collagenous scar with patent capillary lumens [Green, 1993] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Scar disc Scar disciform Thick fibrocellular scar, circular or oval in cross-section [Green, 1993] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Scar fibrocell Scar fibrocellular Connective tissue with flat cells, likely fibroblasts, without blood vessels [Green, 1993] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Scar fibrovasc Scar fibrovascular Connective tissue with a small component of blood vessels, mostly capillaries [Green, 1993] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
Scar hyaline Scar hyaline Connective tissues with minimal internal structure and vessels, distinguished by excess collagen deposition; resemble hyalinized vessels in choroid [Green, 1993] Sub-retinal space, Sub-RPE space
SDD Subretinal drusenoid deposit Focal deposits of organized, extracellular material containing cholesterol and proteins common to drusen [Sarks, 1988] [Rudolf, 2008] [Zweifel, 2010] [Curcio, 2013] Sub-retinal space
Short Short Referring to photoreceptors: reduced in total cross-sectional area in an area, relative to other OS on the same sections [Curcio, 1996] [Vogt, 2011] OS
Short/Broad Short, broad Referring to photoreceptor IS: shorter, broader than unaffected IS elsewhere, ISel shortens less than myoid [Curcio, 1996] IS myoid, IS ellipsoid, OS
swollenPK Swollen perikarya Enlarged pale photoreceptor perikarya, not attributable to artifactual edema ONL rods, ONL cones
Thinned Depopulated Depopulation of ONL nuclei, in any manner including migration ONL rods, ONL cones
Tubul closed Outer retinal tubulation, closed See tubulation; a circular or ovoid cross-section completely lined by ELM and photoreceptors pointing into the lumen. OPL Henle, ONL rods, ONL cones, Sub-retinal space
Tubul open Outer retinal tubulation, open See tubulation; a semi-circular cross-section lined by ELM and photoreceptors on inner aspect only. Distinguished from a surviving island by reflections of the ELM. OPL Henle, ONL rods, ONL cones, Sub-retinal space
Tubulation Outer retinal tubulation Connecting tubes of surviving photoreceptors and Müller cells in advanced AMD eyes; phases defined by inner and outer segment persistence [Curcio, 1996] [Zweifel, 2009] OPL Henle, ONL rods, ONL cones, Sub-retinal space


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